Η Ρωμαϊκή Αυτοκρατορία βρισκόταν σε έναν σχεδόν διαρκή πόλεμο με την Παρθική Αυτοκρατορία (σημερινό Ιράν, Αφγανιστάν, Ιράκ κλπ).
Οι Πάρθοι ξεσήκωναν τους Εβραίους της Παλαιστίνης εναντίον των Ρωμαίων, με αποτέλεσμα να ξεσπάσουν μεγάλες Εβραϊκές εξεγέρσεις εναντίον των Ρωμαίων στην Παλαιστίνη, με αιτήματα από μείωση της φορολογίας μέχρι την δημιουργία Εβραϊκού κράτους. Οι Εβραίοι έκαναν εναντίον των Ρωμαίων τρομοκρατικές ενέργειες, πχ δηλητηρίαζαν το νερό των Ρωμαίων, δολοφονούσαν Ρωμαίους στρατιώτες κλπ.
Οι Ρωμαίοι νίκησαν και όσοι Εβραίοι δεν ξεκληρίστηκαν αναγκάστηκαν να φύγουν για να σωθούν από τους Ρωμαίους.
“First Jewish–Roman War”
1η, 2η Παράγραφος
The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the Great Revolt (Hebrew: המרד הגדול ha-Mered Ha-Gadol), was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews of Judea Province (Iudaea) against the Roman Empire. The second was the Kitos War in 115–117, which took place mainly in the diaspora, and the third was Bar Kokhba's revolt of 132–136 CE.
The Great Revolt began in the year 66 CE, originating in Roman and Jewish ethnic tensions. The crisis escalated due to anti-taxation protests and attacks upon Roman citizens. The Roman governor, Gessius Florus, responded by plundering the Jewish Temple, claiming the money was for the Emperor, and the next day launching a raid on the city, arresting numerous senior Jewish figures. This prompted a wider, large-scale rebellion and the Roman military garrison of Judaea was quickly overrun by the rebels, while the pro-Roman king Agrippa II, together with Roman officials, fled Jerusalem. As it became clear the rebellion was getting out of control, Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, brought in the Syrian army, based on Legion XII Fulminata and reinforced by auxiliary troops, to restore order and quell the revolt. Despite initial advances and conquest of
, the Syrian Legion
was ambushed and defeated by Jewish rebels at the Battle of Beth
Horon with 6,000 Romans massacred and the Legion's aquila lost – a result that shocked
the Roman leadership. Jaffa
As a result, extensive religious riots broke out in the city. Caligula responded by removing Flaccus from his position and executing him. In 39, Agrippa accused Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, of planning a rebellion against Roman rule with the help of Parthia. Herod Antipas confessed and Caligula exiled him. Agrippa was rewarded with his territories.
The Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. It was the first series of conflicts in what would be 719 years of Roman–Persian Wars.
Early incursions by the Roman Republic against
were repulsed, notably at the Battle of Carrhae (53 BC). During the
Roman Liberators' civil war of
the 1st Century BC, the Parthians actively supported Brutus and Cassius,
invading Parthia Syria, and gaining
territories in the Levant. However, the
conclusion of the second Roman civil war brought a revival of
Roman strength in Western Asia.
1η, 2η Παράγραφος
The Jewish–Roman wars were a series of large-scale revolts by the Jews of the Eastern Mediterranean against the Roman Empire between 66 and 136 CE. While the First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE) and the Bar Kokhba revolt (132–136 CE) were nationalist rebellions, striving to restore an independent Judean state, the Kitos War was more of an ethno-religious conflict, mostly fought outside of the Judea Province. Hence, some sources use the term Jewish-Roman Wars to refer only to the First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE) and the Bar Kokhba revolt (132–135 CE), while others include the Kitos War (115–117 CE) as one of the Jewish–Roman wars.
The Jewish–Roman wars had an important impact on the Jews, turning them from a major population in the
into a scattered and persecuted minority. The Jewish-Roman Wars are often cited
as a disaster to Jewish society.[dead link] The
events also had a major impact on Judaism, after the central worship site
of Second Temple Judaism,
the Second Temple in
Jerusalem, was destroyed by Titus' troops. Although having a sort of autonomy
in the Galilee until the 4th century such as
the Council of Jamnia (or Yavne),
and later a limited success in establishing the short-lived Sasanian
Jewish autonomy in Jerusalem in 614–617 CE, Jewish dominance in
parts of the Southern Levant was
regained only in the mid-20th century, with the founding
of the state of Israel in 1948 CE.
Though initially pacified (the years between 7 and 26 CE being relatively quiet), the province continued to be a source of trouble under Emperor Caligula (after 37 CE). The cause of tensions in the east of the Empire was complicated, involving the spread of Greek culture, Roman Law and the rights of Jews in the Empire. Caligula did not trust the prefect of Roman Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. Flaccus had been loyal to Tiberius, had conspired against Caligula's mother and had connections with Egyptian separatists.[better source needed] In 38 CE, Caligula sent Agrippa to
unannounced to check on Flaccus.[better source needed] According
to Philo, the visit was met with jeers from the Greek population, who saw Agrippa as the king of the Jews.[better source needed] Flaccus
tried to placate both the Greek population and Caligula by having statues of
the emperor placed in Jewish synagogues.[better source needed] As a
result, extensive religious riots broke out in the city. Caligula responded by removing
Flaccus from his position and executing him. In 39 CE, Agrippa accused Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, of planning a rebellion against Roman
rule with the help of Parthia. Herod Antipas
confessed and Caligula exiled him. Agrippa was rewarded with his territories. Alexandria